The Druze holy book El- Mithaq. The Druze religion is purported to be a complex mixture of Neo-Platonic philosophy, Gnosticism, Sufi mysticism and Isma’ili tradition. For example, I have … Though the name has stuck throughout the centuries, officially, they prefer the name Muwahhidoon (Unitarian). In 2019, there were 143,000 Druze living in Israel, 1.6% of the total population of the country. To keep the religion as pure and secret as possible, Druze don’t recognize marriage with outsiders. The full Druze canon or Druze scripture includes the Old Testament, the New Testament, the Quran and philosophical works by Plato and those influenced by Socrates among works from … [13], On the concept of God, Hamza ibn Ali wrote.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, If human minds would be given the knowledge of God without any familiarization and gradation, those human minds would swoon and fall down. The rest of the Druze, known as the juhhal (“the unenlightened”), may not read the holy books, but are instead given a strict code of moral and ethical behavior to follow. The Druze religious establishment's interpretation of taqiyya (تقیة) and the esoteric nature of the faith led to the restriction of access, inquiry and investigation from even their own uninitiated Druze known as al-Juhhāl (جهال) ("the Ignorant") or jismaniyeen ("the Material Ones"). Regular Druze know minimal about their religion - … $16.72. AbÅ« MuḥrÄ«z Jahm ibn á¹¢afwān ar-RāsibÄ« as-SamarqāndÄ« at-TirmidhÄ«, Abu’l-Hassan Muqātil ibn Sulaymān ibn BashÄ«r al-AzdÄ«, AbÅ« Ishāq IbrāhÄ«m ibn Sayyār ibn Hāni’ an-Nazzām, AbÅ« AlÄ« Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb ibn Sallām al-Jubbā'Ä«, AbÅ« Uthmān Amr ibn Bhār ibn MāhbÅ«b al-Jāhiz al-KinānÄ«, MaymÅ«n al-Qaddāḥ's Ismā'Ä«lÄ« doctrine, List of contemporary Muslim scholars of Islam, Nafi ibn al-Azraq al-HānafÄ« al-HandhalÄ«, AbÅ« Abdi’l-Lāh Ahmad ibn AbÄ« Du'ad Faraj ibn CarÄ«r ibn Mâlik al-IyādÄ«, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Epistles_of_Wisdom&oldid=987466689, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, AbÅ« Abdirrahmān Bishr ibn Ghiyāth ibn AbÄ« KarÄ«ma al-MarÄ«sÄ« al-BaghdādÄ« (, AbÅ« Muḥāmmad (Abū’l-Hākem) Heshām ibn Sālem al-JawālikÄ« al-, AbÅ« Bakr Abdurrahmān ibn Kaysān al-Asāmm, AbÅ« MÅ«sā Isā ibn Subeyh (SabÄ«h) al-Murdār al-BāsrÄ« (MurdārÄ«yya), HÄ«shām ibn Amr al-FuwātÄ« ash-ShaybānÄ« (HÄ«shāmÄ«yya), AbÅ« Sahl Abbād ibn Sulaimān (Salmān) as-SāymarÄ«, Abū’l-HÅ«sayn AbdÅ«rrāhÄ«m ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Uthmān al-Hayyāt (HayyātÄ«yya), AbÅ« Amr Ḍirār ibn Amr al-GatafānÄ« al-KÅ«fÄ« (ḌirārÄ«yya), AbÅ« Ê¿Abdillāh al-Husayn ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Ê¿Abdillāh an-Najjār ar-RāzÄ«, AbÅ« Ê¿Abdallāh Ibnū’z-Zā‘farānÄ« (Zā‘farānÄ«yya), AbÅ« Ê¿Abdillāh Muḥāmmad ibn Karrām ibn Arrāk ibn Huzāba ibn al-Barā’ as-SijjÄ«, HaisamÄ«yya (AbÅ« Ê¿Abdallāh Muhammad ibn al-Haisam), IshāqÄ«yya (AbÅ« YaÊ¿qÅ«b Ishāq ibn Mahmashādh), Tarā'ifÄ«yya (Ahmad ibn Ê¿AbdÅ«s at-Tarā'ifÄ«), AbÅ« Abdillāh MugÄ«re ibn Sāīd al-Ê¿IjlÄ« el-BajalÄ«, AbÅ« Amr (AbÅ« Mu‘tamÄ«r) Muāmmar ibn Abbād as-SÅ«lamÄ«, AbÅ« Sahl BÄ«shr ibn al-Mu‘tamÄ«r al-HilālÄ« al-BaghdādÄ«, AbÅ« HāshÄ«m Abdu’s-Salām ibn Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb al-Jubbā'Ä«, Abū’l-Huzayl Muḥāmmad ibn al-Huzayl ibn Abdillāh al-Allāf al-AbdÄ« al-BāsrÄ«, AbÅ« Ma‘n SÅ«māma ibn Ashras an-NÅ«mayrÄ« al-BāsrÄ« al-BaghdādÄ«, AbÅ« Bakr Muḥāmmad ibn Abdillāh ibn ShabÄ«b al-BasrÄ«, Abū’l-KāsÄ«m Abdullāh ibn Ahmad ibn MāhmÅ«d al-BalhÄ« al-Kā‘bÄ«, This page was last edited on 7 November 2020, at 06:52. He argues that the Arab heritage of the Druze represents the community’s willful obfuscation of its Persian origins. [2] It is believed by the Druze from interpretation of the epistles that Al-Hakim did not die, but merely withdrew into occultation and will return one day and reveal the Druze wisdom to the world in order to inaugurate a golden age. The Druze holy book El- … Most of them live in Syria and Lebanon.Some have emigrated to the United States and Canada.. No initiated Druze has ever left the sect to confess the secrets and no anthropologist has ever successfully penetrated the community. The Druze's holy book is called the "Hikme" book (or the book of Wisdom). The Epistles of Wisdom or Rasa'il al-Hikmah (Arabic: رَسَائِل ٱلْحِكْمَة‎) is a corpus of sacred texts and pastoral letters by teachers of the Druze Faith, which has currently close to a million faithful, mainly in Lebanon, Syria, Israel and Jordan. Druze are either religious or nonreligious and only the religious group is allowed to read the holy books and learn its doctrines. The Israeli Druze (Arabic: الدروز الإسرائيليون ‎, Hebrew: דְּרוּזִים יִשְׂרְאֵלִים ‎) are a religious and ethnic minority among Arab citizens of Israel. If not, they’ll learn the truth of God and life and, if they fail to adhere to those responsibilities, it’s worse than if they’d remained unenlightened. [20], Book central to the Druze faith, by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, Antoine Isaac, Baron Silvestre de Sacy, Expose de la Religion des Druzes (Paris, 1838; republ. Aug 29, 2017 - A Druze man reads a holy book outside the Nabi Shuaib shrine during the annual pilgrimage to the site, near the Sea of Galilee in northern Israel, Saturday, April 25, 2015. There is no official liturgy or prayer book, no holy days or fast days, and no pilgrimages. Continua a leggere. Despite a few holy sites which have become official gathering places for the Druze, the Druze generally spurn the concepts of ceremonies and rituals. Those few ini­ti­ated in the Druze holy books are called Ê¿uqqāl, while the "ig­no­rant", reg­u­lar mem­bers of the group are called juhhāl. [11][12] The texts provide formidable insight into the incorporation of the Universal Intellect and Soul of the world in 11th century Egypt, when the deity showed itself to men through Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim and his doctrines. Hitti also cites Druze religious texts in France’s national library. The Druze perform their spiritual reckoning with God at all times, and consequently need no special days of fasting or atonement. Druze, small Middle Eastern religious sect characterized by an eclectic system of doctrines and by a cohesion and loyalty among its members (at times politically significant) that have enabled them to maintain for centuries their close-knit identity and distinctive faith. Paperback. Druze have their own holy book which is the "Book of Wisdom". Those who violate this rule can be killed or excommunicated. They believe that only in a long string of successive lives would a soul have sufficient opportunity to become responsible for his or her behavior. Druze believe that he will return to usher in a new age of greatness and prosperity. (AP Photo/Ariel Schalit) Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of all Mandaeans and Mahra (عرب بادئه) (Marsh Arab) from Druze Mountain, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. A Syrian physician gave one of the first Druze manuscripts to Louis XIV in 1700, which is now kept in the Bibliothèque Nationale. There are more than 500,000 Druze. Their founding prophet, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the last of the great Fatimid caliphs, was quite a character – he nixed Nile booze cruises, abolished slavery eight centuries before America did, and outlawed polygamy, alcohol and some vegetable for a reason no one seems to remember. 482. He argues that the Arab heritage of the Druze represents the community’s willful obfuscation of its Persian origins. The 488 clerics walked 300 meters from the Israeli lines to a Syrian checkpoint at Quneitra, some 65 kilometers south of Damascus, where they received a warm welcome from waiting crowds. Un Libanais sunnite ayant épousé une druze a eu le pénis tranché et les dents arrachées par les frères de sa femme, opposés à leur union, rapporte mercredi 17 juillet la presse locale. The primary scriptures of Christianity is the Bible. Answer to: What is the holy book of Druze? Most of the Epistles are written in a post-classical language, often showing similarities to Arab Christian authors. The Druze faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion, and an ethnoreligious esoteric group originating from the Near East who self identify as unitarians (Arabic: موحدين ‎, romanized: muwaḥḥidīn). 15–16. Get to Know Us. [citation needed] The Druze believe that members of their community can only be reincarnated within the community. [4][5] The Epistles of Wisdom are also referred to as the Kitab al-Hikma (Book of Wisdom) and Al-Hikma al-Sharifa. Given the strict re­li­gious, in­tel­lec­tual and spir­i­tual re­quire­ments, most of the Druzes are not ini­ti­ated and might be re­ferred to as al-Juhhāl (جهال), lit­er­ally "the Ig­no­rant", but in prac­tice re­fer­ring to the non-ini­ti­ated Druzes; how­ever, that term is sel­dom used by the Druzes. $7.99. Amazon.com: The Druze (9780300048100): Betts, Robert Brenton: Books ... Yezidi Holy Books Gregory K. Koon. Retrieved 18 March 2011. This book addresses the major generators of conflict and toleration at shared holy places in Palestine and Israel. The Druze believe that many teachings given by prophets, religious leaders and holy books have esoteric meanings preserved for those of intellect, in which some teachings are symbolic and allegorical in nature, and divide the understanding of holy books and teachings into three layers. Princeton University Press. The most authoritative Druze religious text is the Kitab al-hikma (Book of Wisdom), a collection of 111 letters, some of them written by al-Hakim and Hamza. The Druze believe that many teachings given by prophets, religious leaders and holy books have esoteric meanings preserved for those of intellect, in which some teachings are symbolic and allegorical in nature, and divide the understanding of holy books and teachings into three layers. 4.6 out of 5 stars 241. Syria's Peasantry, the Descendants of Its Lesser Rural Notables, and Their Politics. Ḥamza ibn Ê»Ali ibn Aḥmad and Baha’a El-Din. It is the world's largest religion with about 2.4 billion followers. A thousand-year-old offshoot of Islam, the Druze consider themselves Arab in every country they inhabit except Israel where they enjoy a privileged status in exchange for their loyalty to the state. April 2013 version. The Druze practice a religion related to Islam and Christianity but more based on philosophy. April 2013 version. 15–16. ‘The Epistles of Wisdom’ is the most important of these. Yezidi Holy Books Gregory K. Koon. Examining the religious, political and legal issues, the authors show how the holy sites have been a focus of both conflict and cooperation between different communities. The Druze Faith. Thus, their places of worship are usually very modest, and their religious figures ("Ajaweed") lead very modest lifestyles. Pubblicato in Medioriente politico - Tag Al Aqsa, Druze, Haram al Sharif, Israel, jerusalem, Jerusalem without God, umm al fahm. The Druze holy book is called the Hikme book (or the book of Wisdom). They denounce materialism, especially materialism relative to religion. Conférences de M. Daniel De Smet., Université Catholique de Louvain, p.149, 2008. Druze, small Middle Eastern religious sect characterized by an eclectic system of doctrines and by a cohesion and loyalty among its members (at times politically significant) that have enabled them to maintain for centuries their close-knit identity and distinctive faith. Druze manuscripts are generally written in a language, grammar and diction that, to the uninitiated is hard to understand and includes ambiguous words and highly obscure and cryptic phrases, in-addition to the extensive usage of symbology and numerology in much of the writings. The shrine is where the Druze and Islamic prophet Shuaib is believed to be buried. Les druzes israéliens ont récemment manifesté contre la loi définissant Israël comme « l’Etat-nation du peuple juif ». The Druze are neither Muslim, Christian nor Jewish but have their own secret monotheistic religion. Converts are not accepted, and the Druze are forbidden to intermarry. The persecution of the Druze included massacres, demolishing Druze prayer houses and holy places and forced conversion to Islam. The Druze don’t want any non-initiated Druze to read their holy books. Paperback . The Druze holy book Epistles of Wisdom – page.47 “Elmithaq” (PDF). They have their own Holy books. [8] The first French translation was published in 1838 by linguist and orientalist Antoine Isaac, Baron Silvestre de Sacy in Expose de la religion des Druzes. The Druze believe that many teachings given by prophets, religious leaders and holy books have esoteric meanings preserved for those of intellect, in which some teachings are symbolic and allegorical in nature, and divide the understanding of holy books and teachings into three layers. This book addresses the major generators of conflict and toleration at shared holy places in Palestine and Israel. 6 The Druze Archives (DA) in the University of Haifa contains, in addition to his book on the Druze holy places, three other works on Druze affairs. The Druze believe that many teachings given by prophets, religious leaders and holy books have esoteric meanings preserved for those of intellect, in which some teachings are symbolic and allegorical in nature, and divide the understanding of holy books and teachings into three layers. [1] According to oral traditions there were originally twenty-four books. What she wanted me to impress upon you was the druze holy books her father would be disappointed in you. The Text, unrevealable to Druze non-believers or foreigners, is shrouded in a collective pact to ‘keep quiet’. Druze meet on Thursday nights in simple buildings, the only furniture being small lecterns to … HAMAS; ... been for centuries at the root of most of the constantly recurring trouble between the various Christian rites at the Holy Sepulchre”. It appeared in the Levant during the reign of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, (996 - 1021). Lifestyle and appearance of the Druze people have been a mystery to many. Other ancient Druze writings include the Rasa'il al-Hind (Epistles of India) and the previously lost (or hidden) manuscripts such as al-Munfarid bi-Dhatihi and al-Sharia al-Ruhaniyya as well as others including didactic and polemic treatises. Paperback. Several beliefs and practices may be highlighted. Druze believe in many prophets and do not have a specific prophet. Christoph Heger. The majority of the Druze lack this comfort. They feel the scripture must be protected from “unfit” persons. The Druze faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn-'Ali, al-Hakim, Plato, Aristotle, Socrates and Akhenaten. Supposedly, thousands of reincarnations occur to the soul until Judgment Day, when the Tawhid founder Al-Hakim will return and confront each soul with the memory of all its previous lives and choices and their consequences. Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the Christ, whose coming as the messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament, and chronicled in the New Testament. [1][2], The full Druze canon or Druze scripture includes the Old Testament, the New Testament, the Quran and philosophical works by Plato and those influenced by Socrates among works from other religions and philosophers. Those were no ordinary killings in the Druze's narrative, they were meant to eradicate the whole community according to the Druze narrative. They are organised into six books first compiled by one of the greatest Druze sages 'Abd-Allah Al-Tanukhi in 1479 AD. Posted by 4 days ago. Traboulsi, Samer., Journal of the American Oriental Society, Article, Les Epitres sacrees des Druzes: Rasa il al-Hikma, volumes 1 et 2, July-Sept, 2009. Al-Hakim, a ruler of Egypt during the 11th century sponsored the religion which was created by Hamza bin Ali. Regular Druze know minimal about their religion - Barely enough for them to practice anything. [3] The Druze claim that an understanding of these is necessary, but that their al-Ê»Uqqāl (عقال), ("the Knowledgeable Initiates") have access to writings of their own that supersede these. The majority of the Druze lack this comfort. They denounce materialism, especially materialism relative to religion. One of the Druze's holy books is called the "Hikma Book" or the "Book of Wisdom", largely compiled by a mysterious figure called al-Muqtana. 4.6 out of 5 stars 241. Historically the relationship between the Druze and Muslims has been characterized by intense persecution. Heirs to Forgotten Kingdoms: Journeys Into the Disappearing Religions of the Middle East Gerard Russell. He details his efforts to assist his people's welfare and peace and urges them to remain upright.[7]. For more information on the fascinating Druze, visit: The Seven Perfumes of Sacrifice, by Amy Logan. The Druze heritage house is on 8th Street and houses an exhibit about the Druze lifestyle. Her book is very even handed and those who know nothing about the Druze will find this book to be both a light read and very informative. One can also just wander around the village to no specific place; walk through the narrow passageways that wind their way between old houses, prayer halls and holy sites, beside olive … It’s not clear what happens after that. (Photo by www.metaltraveller.com) The Druze community is divided into two … Other Druze, known as the juhhal ("the unenlightened"), are not permitted to access the religion's six holy books but are given a simplified outline of their faith in the form of … These display a notable form of Arabic Neoplatonism blended with Ismailism and adopted Christian elements of great interest for the philosophy and history of religions. The first epistle opens with the goodbye message from Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the original teacher of the Druze. Also called the Druse, Duruz, Duroz, and the Tawhid faith, there are about 750,000-800,000 of them today, primarily in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. Retrieved 18 March 2011. Druze have their own holy book which is the "Book of Wisdom". Thus, their places of worship are usually very modest, and their religious figures (ajawÄ«d) lead very modest lifestyles. Their holy book, known as the Book of Wisdom, is not easily accessible nor is it comprehensible to … Not many are able to plumb into the depths of the community as she has. In what he must have intended to be a provocation, he reproduced a page of what he claimed to be a Druze holy text, from the Princeton library, on the first page of his book. Or that's what my druze friend used to tell me in high school. Hitti also cites Druze religious texts in France’s national library. The Qur'ān is one of their holy books and they celebrate the Feast of Sacrifice ('Īd al-Adh a) just like their neighbors. The Druze are an Arabic-speaking people of the Middle East.. -- Les maîtres du secret : ordre mondain et ordre religieux dans la communauté druze en Israël. Most Druze believe “Druze” came from Nashtakin Darazi, a heretic early leader of the sect, whom they try to forget. [18], Protect yourselves from ignorance with the help of the knowledge of the unity of our Lord...[19], With regards the unity of God and how to remain in a state of peace of mind and contentment (Rida (Arabic: رضا)) and find knowledge of true love, Hamza ibn Ali left us a message, I enjoin you to safeguard your fellow men. According to some accounts, the Druze believe all human souls were created at once and the number is fixed, although no sources seem to agree on what that number is. Hitti, Philip K., Origins of the Druze People and Religion, CHAPTER V, DRUZE THEOLOGY AND ITS SOURCES, 1928. In what he must have intended to be a provocation, he reproduced a page of what he claimed to be a Druze holy text, from the Princeton library, on the first page of his book. They accept “The Seven Precepts,” which they believe are the essential components of the Pillars of Islam. He virtually bound within it all the created beings, so that nothing might be outside of it. The Druze thus eliminated all elements of ritual and ceremony; there is no fixed daily liturgy, no defined holy days, and no pilgrimage obligations. The Druze religion is secret and closed to converts. Sometimes they’re called the Zen Buddhists of the Middle East. Despite a few holy sites which have become official gathering places for the Druze, the Druze generally spurn the concepts of ceremonies and rituals. Other. [16], On the concept of atheism, Baha'uddin argued, Believing in the non-existence negates existence as such. Christoph Heger. They denounce materialism, especially materialism relative to religion. [14], ...the originator of the perfect Aql. It is a way that leads to unbelief, atheism, and denial. Few people know about the Druze, a mysterious, 1,000 year old religion in Lebanon. These layers, according to the Druze, are as follows: One secret that slipped out in the 1970s is that they believe in reincarnation. Next > Back to top. Learn more about the Druze in … She covers several topics in this book such as relations to the state,religion , customs and more. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, most Druze do not identify as Muslims, and they do not accept the five pillars of Islam. pp. ISBN 978-1-4008-4584-2. Few people know about the Druze, a mysterious, 1,000 year old religion in Lebanon. Dating is not allowed, most especially outside the faith. In what he must have intended to be a provocation, he reproduced a page of what he claimed to be a Druze holy text, from the Princeton library, on the first page of his book. The persecution of the Dru… He even let his subjects choose their own religion, which is how the Druze faith got started in Cairo in 1017. 4.4 out of 5 stars 16. As such, they fight in the Israeli army alongside Jews, which has given them a strained relationship with many Palestinians. The Druzes do not rec­og­nize any re­li­gious hi­er­ar­chy. Keep in mind that only those who choose to dedicate themselves for a lifetime of religious studies are those who are taught about the religion. Learn more about the Druze … Other original manuscripts are held in the Robert Garrett collection at Princeton University. Lebanese Druze (Arabic: دروز لبنان ‎, romanized: durūz lubnān) are Druze people with Lebanese citizenship. Princeton University Press. The Druze faith is often classified as a branch of Isma'ili. Hitti (1886–1978) was born in Lebanon and became a well-regarded academic in the United States. [9][10], Another edition of the Rasa'il al-hikma was published by pseudonymous writers in Lebanon in 1986 as part of the highly controversial "The Hard Truth" series which included several anti-Druze, anti-Alawite and anti-Islamic books and was banned by the authorities for containing misleading information and hate speech, also an unpublished dissertation by David Bryer was prepared on the first two volumes. Many, if not most, seem to have given up and gone with “Druze”. Hanna Batatu (17 September 2012). [15], On the concept of reincarnation and the universal soul, Baha'uddin wrote, O you who are distracted, how can he who is devoid of his corporeal means obtain knowledge?O you who are heedless, how can he who abandoned his sensual faculty reach ignorance?And O you who are perplexed, how can the souls exist by themselves?And how can they settle in their origin, and yet have a life and procure their pleasures? If not, they’ll learn the truth of God and life and, if they fail to adhere to those responsibilities, it’s worse than if they’d remained unenlightened. 4.4 out of 5 stars 16. Local disturbances such as the invasion of Ibrahim Pasha between 1831 and 1838, along with the 1860 Lebanon conflict caused some of these texts to fall into the hands of academics. [2], The epistles contain philosophical discourses about Neoplatonic and Gnostic subjects, Ptolemaic cosmology, Arabic paraphrases of the philosophies of Farabi, Plotinus and Proclus, writings on the Universal Soul along with several polemic epistles concerning other faiths and philosophies that were present during that time and towards individuals who were considered renegades or those who tried to distort and tarnish the reputation of the faith and its teachings such as the "Answering the Nusayri" epistle and the fifth volume of the Epistles. Get to Know Us. Examining the religious, political and legal issues, the authors show how the holy sites have been a focus of both conflict and cooperation between different communities. Epistle number six is dated earliest and was written in July 1017 AD by Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad and he is specifically mentioned as the author of thirty more epistles in the first two books. Prayer is usually conducted discreetly and among family and friends. Keep in mind that only those who choose to dedicate themselves for a lifetime of religious studies are those who are taught about the religion. Those are not granted ac­cess t… The community is divided into two groups: the uqqual and the juhhal. ^ Hanna Batatu (17 September 2012). Syria’s Peasantry, the Descendants of Its Lesser Rural Notables, and Their Politics. This article explores the cultural dynamics of bond and separateness created around the Book of Wisdom (kitâb əl-ḥikma), the Druze Holy Book. A look at its history might give you a clue. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. [4] A French translation and critical examination of these first two volumes (epistles one to forty) from the Epistles of Wisdom was published in 2007 by Daniel de Smet who has provided a doctrinal introduction, notes, a description and inventory of the manuscripts and studies of their contents and characteristics. Hitti (1886–1978) was born in Lebanon and became a well-regarded academic in the United States. pp. Heirs to Forgotten Kingdoms: Journeys Into the Disappearing Religions of the Middle East Gerard Russell. Almost 500 Druze clergymen living in the Golan Heights crossed into Syria on Thursday for an annual pilgrimage to a holy shrine in the Syrian countryside. The Druze don’t want any non-initiated Druze to read their holy books. There is no official liturgy or prayer book, no holy days or fast days, and no pilgrimages. Libri / Books. It is also known that Druze believe in five cosmic principles, represented by the five-colored Druze star: intelligence/reason (green), soul (red), word … The Druze (holy) book, known as The Epistles of Wisdom (Rasāʾil al-Ḥikmah), is in actuality a hermeneutic of biblical and Qur ʾ anic doctrines rather than an independent book of revelations. 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